National Statistics

National Statistics
All statistics are taken with permission from www.mecasa.org.

 

General
  • One in five women has been the victim of attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.  woman climbing stairs - statistics nationalNearly 1 in 2 women have experienced sexual violence other than rape in their lifetime.20
  • 1 in 5 men have experienced a form of sexual violence other than rape in their lifetime.21
  • 27% of male victims of completed rape were first raped when they were 10 years old or younger.22
  • Most female victims of completed rape experienced their first rape before the age of 25 and almost half experienced their first completed rape before age 18.23
  • Persons under 18 years of age account for 67% of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement agencies. Children under twelve years old account for 34% of those cases, and children under six years old account for 14% of those cases.24
  • The majority of both female and male victims of rape knew the person who raped them.25
  • 17.7 million women in the US have been the victim of a rape or attempted rape at some point in their lives.26
  • More than one-third of women who were raped as minors were also raped as adults, compared to 14% without an early rape history.27
  • In a survey of college women, 13.3% indicated that they have been forced to have sex in a dating situation.28
  • 1.3 million women have been raped in the last 12 months.29

20. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
21. Ibid.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid.
24. Briere, J. & Elliot, D.M. (2003). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 1205-1222.
25. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
26. National Institute of Justice Centers for Disease Control. (1998). Findings from the national violence against women survey.
27. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
28. Johnson, I. & R. Sigler. (2000). Forced sexual intercourse among intimates. Journal of Family Violence, 15(1), 95-108.
29. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Reporting & Prosecution

  • Only 13% of the sexual assault cases disclosed in the National Survey of Adolescents were reported to police, 6% to child protective services, 5% to school authorities, and 1.3% to other authorities. 86% of the sexual assaults went unreported.30
  • In 2010, nationally only 50% of rapes/sexual assaults were reported to law enforcement.31
  • Only 2-8% of all sexual assault accusations reported to law enforcement turn out to be false. This is the same rate as other types of violent crimes.32
  • Misconceptions about false reporting have direct, negative consequences and may contribute to why many victims don’t report sexual assaults.33
  • Nationally, of the rape and/or attempted rape reported to law enforcement in 2009, 41.2% resulted in an arrest.34
  • There has been little or no change in the rates of prosecution of rape in the last two decades, and lack of prosecution allow serial rapists to run free.35

30. Hoff, T., Greene, L. & Davis, J. (2003). National survey of adolescents: Sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/National-Survey-of- Adolescents-and-Young- Adults-Sexual-Health-Knowledge-Attitudes-and-Experiences-Summary-of- Findings.pdf
31. Truman, J.L. (2011). Criminal victimization 2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv10.pdf
32. Lonsway, K., Archambault, J., & Lisak, D. (2009). False reports: Moving beyond the issue to successfully investigate and prosecute non-stranger sexual assault. American Prosecutors Research Institute, 3(1).
33. Lisak, D. et al. (2010). False allegations of sexual assault: An analysis of ten years of reported cases. Violence Against Women, 16, 1318-1334.
34. Lonsway, K., Archambault, J., & Lisak, D. (2009). False reports: Moving beyond the issue to successfully investigate and prosecute non-stranger sexual assault. American Prosecutors Research Institute, 3(1).
35. Harwell, M.C. & Lisak, D. (2010). Why rapists run free. Sexual Assault Report, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.17-18, 26-27.

Specific Populations

  • Approximately 1 in 5 Black women in the U.S. experienced rape at some point in their lives.36
  • 1 in 7 Hispanic women have experienced rape at some point in their lifetime; over half of Hispanic women have experienced sexual violence other than rape in their lifetime.37
  • One in three multiracial non-Hispanic women will be the victim of rape in her lifetime.38
  • 26.9% of American Indian or Alaska Native women have experienced sexual violence at some point in their lives. Nearly 1 in 2 American Indian or Alaska Native women have experienced sexual violence other than rape.39
  • The offender is non-Native in 2/3 of sexual violence cases perpetrated against Native women.40
  • 22.6% of Black men experienced sexual violence other than rape in their lifetime.41
  • Nearly one-third of multiracial men have experienced sexual violence other than rape in their lifetime.42
  • National studies estimate that almost 80% of people with disabilities are sexually assaulted on more than one occasion and 50% of those experienced more than 10 victimizations.43
  • Women with disabilities are raped and abused at a rate at least twice that of the general population of women.44
  • Among adults who are developmentally disabled, as many as 83% of the females and 32% of the males are victims of sexual assault.45
  • In a study of elder female sexual abuse victims, 81% of the abuse was perpetrated by the victim’s primary caregiver.46
  • Married immigrant women experience higher levels of physical and sexual abuse than unmarried immigrant women, 59.5 percent compared to 49.8 percent, respectively.47
  • Most studies reveal that approximately 50% of transgender people experience sexual violence at some point in their lifetime.48
  • The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs reports that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer people were three times more likely to report sexual violence and/or harassment compared to heterosexual people who reported to NCAVP in 2010.49
  • One in ten transgender individuals have been sexually assaulted in a healthcare setting.50
  • No data on sexual violence experienced by intersex individuals is available at this time.

36. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
37. Ibid.
38. Ibid.
39. Ibid.
40. Bachman, R., et al. (2008). Violence against American Indian and Alaska Native women and the criminal justice response: What is known. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/223691.pdf
41. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
42. Ibid.
43. Sobsey, D., Doe, T. (1991). Patterns of sexual abuse and assault. Sexuality and Disability, 9(3), 243-259.
44. Sobsey, D. (1994). Violence and abuse in the lives of people with disabilities: The end of silent acceptance. Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brooks Publishing, Co., Inc.
45. Johnson, I., Sigler, R. (2001). Forced sexual intercourse among intimates. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(1).
46. Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1991). Elder sexual abuse: Preliminary findings. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 3(3), 73- 90. doi:10.1300/J084v03n03_04
47. Dutton, M., Orloff, L., & Aguilar Hass, G. (2000). Characteristics of help-seeking behaviors, resources, and services needs of battered immigrant Latinas: Legal and policy implications. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law and Policy. 7(2).
48. Stotzer, R. (2009). Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 170-179.
49. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2011). Hate violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected communities in the United States in 2010. Retrieved from http://www.avp.org/documents
50. Grant, J.M., Mottet, L.A., Tanis, J., et al. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the National Transgender Discrimination Study. The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the National Center for Transgender Equality. Retrieved from http://www.thetaskforce.org/downloads/reports/reports/ntds_full.pdf

Health Impacts

  • The chances that a woman will develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder after being raped are 50-90%.51
  • Rape victims are four times more likely to have contemplated suicide after the rape than non-crime victims, and 13 times more likely than non-crime victims to have attempted suicide.52
  • Women who experience rape, stalking, and/or intimate partner violence are significantly more likely to experience asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, frequent headaches, chronic pain, difficulty sleeping, activity limitations, poor physical health, and poor mental health than women who have not had such experiences.53
  • Men who experience rape, stalking, and/or intimate partner violence are significantly more likely to experience frequent headaches, chronic pain, difficulty sleeping, activity limitations, poor physical health, and poor mental health than men who have not had such experiences.54

51. Population Information Program, Center for Communications Programs. (2000). Population reports: Ending violence against women. The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health & Center for Health and Gender Equity.
52. Kilpatrick, D. (2000). The mental health impact of rape. Charleston, SC: Medical University of South Carolina.
53. Black, M.C., et al. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
54. Ibid.

Financial Implications

  • Rape has the highest annual victim costs compared to all other crimes except child sexual assault; this cost has been estimated at $127 billion per year.55
  • Researchers estimate that the cost of each rape is $151,423.56
  • According to a recent report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the total lifetime estimated financial costs associated with just one year of confirmed cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) is approximately $124 billion.57
  • The lifetime cost for each victim of child maltreatment who lived was $210,012.58
  • The estimated economic loss to sexual violence victims in 2007 was 60 million dollars.59
  • In 2007, 60.4% of sexual violence victims missed 1-5 days of work, 16.7% missed 6-10 days of work, and 22.4% missed 11-plus days of work during the year after they were sexually assaulted.60
  • A retrospective study found evidence among a randomly selected sample of women that health care costs were 36% higher for women who reported experiences with childhood physical and sexual abuse.61

55. American College of Emergency Physicians. (1999). Evaluation and management of the sexually assaulted or sexually abused patient. Retrieved from http://www.acep.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=8984
56. Dolezal, T., McCollum, D. & Callahan, M. (2009). Hidden costs in health care: The economic impact of violence and abuse. Eden Prairie, MN: Academy on Violence & Abuse. Retrieved from http://avahealth.org/vertical/Sites/%7B75FA0828-D713-4580-A29D-257F315BB94F%7D/uploads/%7B316BEE7E-F7BB-418E-A246-AF9BB8175CF8%7D.PDF
57. Fang, X. (2012). The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States and implications for prevention. Child Abuse and Neglect 36(2), 156-165.
58. Ibid.
59. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010). National crime victimization survey, 2007 statistical tables. Tables 87, 89. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cvus0706.pdf
60. Ibid.
61. Bonomi AE, Anderson ML, Rivara FP, Cannon EA, Fishman PA, Carrell D, Reid RJ, & Thompson RS. Health care utilization and costs associated with childhood abuse. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(3),294- 299.

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